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In a three hospital study, VandeCreek and Lyon (1994/1995)retrospectively examined hospital records over a 61-day period to identify how often chaplains visited patients, family, and staff.  Ministry to patients, as counted by first contact visits, accounted for about 19% to 28% of the chaplain visits while ministry to families accounted for 29% to 35% of chaplain visits across hospitals.  Although it appears that chaplains saw more family members than patients, the percentages are somewhat inflated due to counting each family member present during a single patient visit.  For example, if there were four family members in the room with a patient when a chaplain visited, the patient was counted once, and family contacts were counted as four.  Even though the study also measured the frequency of worship services and sacramental functions, and estimated the time spent in each, it did not identify the extent that patients, family, or staff benefitted from these activities.  Neither did the report examine what was done during the visits or identify how often families or patients received follow-up visits. A crosscheck was conducted through the reference list of candidate studies to ensure that no model had been left out. Greenberg, L. S. (2007).  A guide to conducting a task analysis of psychotherapeutic change. Research into chaplaincy outcomes falls roughly into two general categories - patient satisfaction studies and outcome studies of actual chaplaincy interventions. CMS Medicare Hospice. (2010). Medicare hospice benefits. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Southern Medical Journal, 99(6), 663-664. Health Care Management Review, 11(1), 47 – 60. Religion, spirituality, and medicine.  Lancet, 353, 664 – 667. Allocation was not randomized rather it was based on the time availability of the individual researchers. Pargament, K. I., Mahoney, A., Exline, J., Jones, J., & Shafranske, E. In R. Hunter (Ed.), Dictionary of pastoral care and counseling. Beyond satisfaction: Using the Dynamics of Care assessment to better understand patients’ experiences in care. Fitchett, G. (2002). Assessing spiritual needs: a guide for caregivers. Without apparent value-added, spiritual care will increasingly be left out of the health care equation. O’Connor, T. S. J. (2002). The search for truth: The case for evidence based chaplaincy. Comprehensive accreditation manual for hospitals (CAMH). A. (2000). Spiritual care in the hospital: Who requests it? Kofinas, S. (2006). Chaplaincy in Europe. Broccolo, G. T., & VandeCreek, L. In addition to definitions of spirituality that have roots in a particular religious tradition, there are definitions of spirituality that are not tied to a particular tradition. DeVries, R., Berlinger, N., & Cadge, W. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 13(2), 141 – 146. The relative prevalence of various spiritual needs.

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Journal of Pastoral Care, 52(4), 359 – 367. Cannot establish causal relationships. It can be inferred from Fig. 3 that evaluators of an OSS quality via its community are mostly interested in the maintenance capacity of such a community in comparison to the sustainability of the community. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Whilst some literature reviews can be presented in a chronological order, this is best avoided. In order to guide the formulation of newer models so they can be acceptable by practitioners, there is need for clear discrimination of the existing models based on their specific properties. Adewumi et al. 2013). We also focused on journal papers and conference proceedings in the subject area of Computer Science that were written in English. Spiritual care: Whose job is it anyway? Religion and coping with serious medical illness. Screening for spiritual struggle. In B. Spilka, & D. McIntosh (Eds.), help writing scholarship essays The psychology of religion: Theoretical approaches. Chambers, J. D., & Neumann, P. A good literature review expands on the reasons behind selecting a particular research question. Table 5 shows the summary of the response to the research questions from each of the selected articles. The spiritual needs of neuro-oncology patients from patients’ perspective. The list of reported situations to which chaplains are referred and, to some extent the interventions they make, can also be significantly affected by factors unrelated to the unique training and contributions of chaplains.  Thus, a hospital with a very robust chaplaincy department but a very weak social work department will likely generate many more referrals to chaplains for emotional issues than a hospital where the situation is reversed.  In some hospitals, chaplains bear primary responsibility for talking to patients about advance directives. Fitchett, G., King, S.D.W., & Vandenheck, A. There is currently no evidence that being board certified and/or following standards of practice produces more effective chaplaincy care. In a study with a well-prescribed intervention protocol, cardiac patients about to undergo coronary artery bypass surgery were provided with a chaplain’s care, or not, and mental health outcomes were measured at one and six months post-surgery (Bay, Beckman, Trippi, Gunderman & Terry, 2008).  Chaplain care was administered by chaplains in five visits; one pre-operative visit with the patient, one visit to the patient’s family during surgery, and three post-operative visits with the patient.  Each chaplain followed a protocol for each visit.  The first visit focused on pastoral support of the patient’s spiritual/psychological needs, the third visit focused on hopes, and the final visit focused on helping the patient through the grief of having limitations and losses due to cardiac disease.  The chaplain self-identified as a clergy person to engage “symbolic aspects” of chaplaincy care and engaged in reflective-listening to allow the patients to discuss any concerns they may have. Hospital & Health Services Administration, 36(3), 455 – 467. Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy, 16(1-2), 24 – 41. That report proposed to collect and assess the evidence for the efficacy of chaplaincy in the National Health System of the United Kingdom.   The current project has the same aim for the U.S. A. et al. (2010). “If God wanted me yesterday, I wouldn’t be here today”: Religious and spiritual themes in patients’ experiences of advanced cancer. Ali Babar 2010). In order to guide the formulation of newer models, there is need to understand the nature of the existing OSS quality assessment models. Berlinger, N. (2008). The nature of chaplaincy and the goals of QI: Patient-centered care as professional responsibility.

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It shows that maintainability is measured by 55% of the existing OSS quality models making it the most common product quality characteristic measured by existing OSS quality models. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(3), 646 – 657. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(10), 885 – 904. Figure 2 shows the frequency distribution of the ISO 25010 Quality in Use characteristics in the OSS quality models we considered. Kazdin, A. E. (2010). Single-case research designs: Methods for clinical and applied settings. One study scored 4, five studies scored 3.5, five studies scored 3, five studies scored 2.5 and two studies scored 2. Gibbons, J., thesis statement help online Thomas, J., VandeCreek, L., & Jessen, A. Millspaugh, D. (2005a). Assessment and response to spiritual pain: Part 1. It is also essential to note that, while progress with regard to these basic structures has been significant in the recent past, we do not know the proportion of people who work as chaplains who are board certified. Clinebell, H. (1984) Basic types of pastoral care and counseling resources for the ministry of healing and growth. In R. F. Paloutzian, & C. L. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 59(1-2), 87 – 96. A major reason for this gap is the lack of evidence for how to deliver spiritual care effectively and efficiently. Vance, D. (2001).  Nurses attitudes towards spirituality and patient care. DT is a psychotherapeutic intervention that creates a generativity document - something “lasting and transcendent of death.”[i] DT sessions are taped, transcribed, edited, and returned within one to two days to the patient. Zinnbauer, B. J., & Pargament, K. With what types of patients and problems are interventions used by chaplains most effective? Thomson’s famous experiments in a chronological order. Further, 68% reported an increased sense of purpose, and 47% an increased will to live; 81% felt it helped prepare them for death; 81% reported that it had been / would be helpful to their families. Meier, D. E., Casarett, D. J., von Gunten, C.

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Pesut, B., Reimer-Kirkham, S., Sawatzky, R., Woodland, G., & Peverall, P. Quality assessment models that evaluate quality in proprietary software are not covered. Internal validity has to do with the data extraction and analysis. Spiritual coping strategies: a review of the nursing research literature.