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Thunen's Belts: A series of concentric rings around a city to identify where agricultural products would be produced according to von Thunen's theory. CELL: A manufacturing or service unit consisting of a number of workstations, and the materials transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them. Does NOT include customer invoicing/accounting costs (See Order Management Costs). Cash In Advance (CIA): A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller in advance of shipment of goods. The need for SCE is what is driving the dot coms to offer equity partnerships to the wholesale distributors. Also see: Cost Benefit Analysis. RF systems use either narrow-band or spread-spectrum transmissions. SCOR: Supply Chain Operations Reference Model. Core competencies are not directly related to the product or market. Cubic Space: In warehousing, a measurement of space available, or required, in transportation and warehousing. A replenishment system where inventory is "pulled" into the supply chain (or "demand chain" by POS systems, or ECR programs). A keiretsu generally forms around a bank and a trading company but distribution (supply chain) keiretsus exist, primary homework help saxons place names linking companies from raw material suppliers to retailers. Drop Ship: To take the title of the products but not actually handle, stock, or deliver it, e.g., to have one supplier ship directly to another or to have a supplier ship directly to the buyer's customer. Actual Cost System: A cost system that collects costs historically as they are applied to production, and allocates indirect costs to products based on the specific costs and achieved volume of the products. Carrier Certificate and Release Order: Used to advise customs of the shipment's details. Seasonality: A repetitive pattern of demand from year to year (or other repeating time interval), with some periods considerably higher than others. This is the model developed by the Supply-Chain Council (SCC), and is build around six major processes: plan, source, make, deliver, return, and enable. Nationalization: Public ownership, financing, and operation of a business entity. Kitting: Light assembly of components or parts into defined units, Kitting reduces the need to maintain an inventory of pre-build, dvd writing service completed products, but increases the time and labor consumed at shipment. Days of Supply: Measure of quantity of inventory on hand in relation to number of days for which usage will be covered. Export Broker: An enterprise that brings together buyer and seller for a fee, then eventually withdraws from the transaction. Permit: A grant of authority to operate as a contract carrier. Plant Finished Goods: Finished goods inventory held at the end manufacturing location. Routing information includes designation of carrier(s) involved, actual route of carrier, and estimate time en route. Get the big players in the fold first, offering equity if necessary.

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Sales Planning: The process of determining the overall sales plan to best support customer needs and operations capabilities, best essay writing service uk while meeting general business objectives of profitability, productivity, competitive customer lead times, and so on, as expressed in the overall business plan. We pay our respect to them and their cultures and to the elders past and present. Synonym: Continuous Improvement. Batch Picking: A method of picking orders in which order requirements are aggregated by product across orders to reduce movement to and from product locations. Common Carrier: Transportation available to the public that does not provide special treatment to any one party and is regulated as to the rates charged, business plan to purchase equipment the liability assumed, and the service provided. This port must be reported on the Shipper's Export Declaration, Schedule D. End-of-Life Inventory: Inventory on hand that will satisfy future demand for products that are no longer in production at your company. Request for Proposal (RFP): A document which provides information concerning needs and requirements for a manufacturer. Fourth Party Logistics (4PL): Differs from third party logistics in the following ways: (1) 4PL organization is often a separate entity established as a joint venture or long-term contract between a primary client and one or more partners; (2) 4PL organization acts as a single interface between the client and multiple logistics service providers; (3) All aspects (ideally) of the client's supply chain are managed by the 4PL organization; (4) It is possible for a major third party logistics provider to form a 4PL organization within its existing structure (Strategic Supply Chain Alignment; John Gattorna). Market Demand: In marketing, the total demand that would exist within a defined customer group in a given geographical area during a particular time period given a known marketing program. Co-Destiny: The evolution of a supply chain from intra-organizational management to inter-organizational management. Customer Driven: The end user, or customer, motivates what is produced or how it is delivered. It can include elimination of compounds that are hazardous to the environment. Touch Labor: The labor that adds value to the product - assemblers, welders, packagers, etc. Returns Material Acquisition, Finance, Planning, and IT Costs: The costs associated with acquiring the defective products and materials for repair or refurbishing items, plus any finance, planning, and information technology costs to support return activity. Decentralized Authority: A situation in which a company management gives decision-making authority to managers at many organizational levels. Performance Measurement Program: A performance measurement program goes beyond just having performance metrics in place. LCL: See Less-Than-Carload and Less-Than-Containerload (LCL). Free Trade Zone (FTZ): See Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ). Standardize - establish schedules and methods of performing the cleaning and sorting. INCOTERMS: International terms of sale developed by the International Chamber of Commerce to define sellers' and buyers' responsibilities.

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Incoming inspection may not be required. Channel Conflict: This occurs when various sales channels within a company's supply chain compete with each other for the same business. The Ready Business Hurricane Toolkit helps leaders take action to protect employees, protect customers, and help ensure business continuity as well. Domestic Trunk Line Carrier: A classification for air carriers that operate between major population centers. Backsourcing: Pulling a function back in house as an outsourcing contract expires. Consumer-Centric Database: Database with information about a retailer's individual consumers used primarily for marketing and promotion. For example, where a company maintains inventory in multiple distribution centers to provide a higher level of customer service. In general transportation, the logical route between the point of shipment and the point of delivery used to analyze the volume of shipment between two points. Value-of-Service Pricing: Pricing according to the value of the product the company is transporting; third-degree price discrimination; demand-oriented pricing; charging what the traffic will bear. Logistics Channel: The network of supply chain participants engaged in storage, handling, transfer, transportation, and communications functions that contribute to the efficient flow of goods. The RPA number often acts as an order form for the work required in repair situations or as a reference for credit approval. Cubage: Cubic volume of space being used or available for shipping or storage. ABC Analysis: A classification of items in an inventory according to importance defined in terms of criteria such as sales volume and purchase volume. Denied Party Listing (DPL): A list of organizations that is unauthorized to submit a bid for an activity or to receive a specific product. Returns Inventory Costs: The costs associated with managing inventory returned for any of the following reasons: repair, refurbish, excess, obsolescence, end of life, ecological conformance, and demonstration. The buyer assumes responsibility for loss and damage and pays for the insurance of the shipment.

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Often includes electronic commerce with suppliers. Contracts are individually negotiated and usually include cargo description, quantities per shipment and in total, load and discharge ports, freight rates and duration of the contract. Examples of ERP systems are the application suites from SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft, and others. Clearance: A document stating that a shipment is free to be imported into the country after all legal requirements have been met. Vendor Code: a unique identifier, usually a number and sometimes the company's DUNS number, assigned by a customer for the vendor it buys from. Cost and Freight (C & F): The seller quotes a price that includes the cost of transportation to a specific point. It includes packaging, marking, weighing, and loading for shipment. Return on Assets (ROA): Financial measure calculated by dividing profit by assets. Also, the group of transaction sets transmitted from one sender to one receiver at one time. To take extraordinary action because of an increase in relative priority.